A Timeline History of Lake Charles and Southwest Louisiana
Prepared by Adley Cormier, Calcasieu Historical Preservation Society
The history of this area
is intertwined with the history of our neighbors, of the political
entities of which we are part, and of the people and movements that have
shaped America in general. This timeline project attempts to provide a
context for Southwest Louisiana history, a unique history in a unique
Southwest Louisiana is geologically
part of the Gulf Coast. Where we are standing is the youngest of four
Pleistocene terraces, namely the Prairie Terrace. In other words, we are
standing on some of the youngest land on the North American continent.
The Prairie Terrace surface is very flat generally, and slopes about a
foot per mile towards the coastline from here to the gulf. In Lake
Charles, the elevation is about 20 to 30 feet above mean sea level.
North and west of the city are higher elevations, capping out at about
150 or so at the northern end of what was once called Imperial
Calcasieu. So, on our timeline: Dinosaurs roam the North American
Continent generally for 600 million years. They visit Southwest
Louisiana only at the very end of their existence on the globe. They
watch the shoreline build up and retreat at least four times in geologic
time, leaving stranded beaches in the terrace. These stranded beaches
are known as Cheniers after the French word for Oak Trees which are often found on these elevated strips of land.
The Grand Chenier roughly parallels
the coastline when you drive Louisiana Highway 82 from Pecan Island to
Cameron, you are on its ridgeline. Let's move ahead: 15 thousand BC:
prehistoric man migrates over the Bering
Land Bridge. By the time they get to Southwest Louisiana, distinctive
nations and tribes have been developed. By the time Europeans visit
Louisiana, there are at least 6 distinctive nations represented.
Southwest Louisiana now shows little evidence of these original
inhabitants-- the Attakapas who called this part of Louisiana home.
The Attakapas Indians
roam all over Southwest Louisiana hunting buffalo and other game,
gathering nuts, roots, and berries, and harvesting fish and shell fish.
go on, you may ask about the Coushattas currently living in the eastern
part of the Imperial Calcasieu area. The Coushatta Nation relates that
their history began in the eastern part of the US. This tribe was
literally pushed by European settlers and physically moved to the
Southwest Louisiana area in the middle of the 19th century. They are not
natives, strictly speaking, to Southwest Louisiana).
original inhabitants, the Attakapas, are linguistically related to the
powerful Aztecs of Mexico. Early explorers relate that these Indians had
rituals that included cannibalism.
remnants of this culture remain; most striking perhaps the name of the
area in which we live Calcasieu, which is the name, supposedly, of one
of their chiefs. The name translates to "Crying Eagle" in the native Attakapas language.
Fast forward: Our timeline: sixteenth
century AD. Cortez lands on the Mexican coast, subdues the Aztecs (and
many other native tribes), sets up settlements in Mexico, thus Texas.
Hernando deSoto visits Louisiana and claims the central portion of what
is now the US for Spain. He bypasses misses southwest Louisiana
entirely. Explorer Cabeza de Vaca probably traverses Southwest Louisiana
but takes a left at the Sabine and gets back to Spanish Mexico.
Our timeline: seventeenth century AD.
The Spanish consolidate claims in Mexico and Texas. France makes a
tentative first step in Canada, begins explorations in the interior of
the continent. LaSalle travels down the Mississippi River but misses the
mouth, later tries to find the mouth but bypasses all of Southwest
Louisiana and lands somewhere on the Texas coast. At the very end of the
century, the Lemoyne brothers, Bienville and Iberville found Louisiana
in Mobile, 1699.
Our timeline: eighteenth century AD.
The French consolidate their settlements in north west and in eastern
Louisiana: Natchitoches 1714, New Orleans 1718, Opelousas and St
Martinville in 1740's. Spain consolidates control over Texas with
strings of missions. The French garrison at Natchitoches is only 14
miles from Los Adaes (not far off US Highway 171), a Spanish misson in
west central Louisiana (and once capital of the Spanish province of
Tejas. France shifts Louisiana to Spain. America engages in the pesky
Revolutionary War on the eastern shore of the continent. When the
British settlements in West Florida (and by West Florida, I mean the
Florida Parishes of Louisiana) prove meddlesome, Galvez (Spanish
governor of Louisiana at the time) fights with the Americans at the
Battle of Baton Rouge. This battle also known as the Battle of New
Richmond, is one of the few Revolutionary War battles fought outside the
original territory of the 13 colonies.
In southwest Louisiana which not quite
Spanish Texas and not yet either French nor Spanish Louisiana, a few
tentative Europeans make their tenuous first efforts at settlement. A
formal expedition led by Jose de Evia
in 1785 is the first recorded formal exploration of the area, although
there is some evidence of settlement a decade earlier. Popular history
suggests the Lebleu family originally from western France and the
Sallier family, originally from Italy were early settlers.
The area was remote from both New
Orleans in the east and from San Antonio on the west. There are just no
connecting waterways to allow for safe travel. Overland travel was near
impossible with the rugged prairie of Southwest Louisiana and its blade
edged grasses, intermittent streams, and marshes. The Calcasieu River
twisted and turned with sandbars, snakes, mosquitoes and slow going.
This isolation, even at this early date, delays settlement of the area
and creates a history rather set apart from the rest of Louisiana.
Our timeline: 1803 Napoleon regains
Louisiana and sells this huge middle third of the continent to the
United States. President Jefferson at first only wants New Orleans
(eastern Louisiana) and what is called the Isle of Orleans, but settles
in addition for a whole huge chunk of real estate defined as all the
land west of and drained by the Mississippi River. Southwest Louisiana
is really not part of the sale.
Our isolation and the fact that this
area is not part of the Mississippi River drainage system leaves us as a
sort of neutral strip. Not until the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819
is the western boundary set at the Sabine River. Until then, the area
serves as a bit of a catch all in terms of attracting all sorts of
early settlers: Tennessee and Kentucky men who served with Jackson at
the Battle of New Orleans (1815), filibusters and rowdies from
Mississippi and the Carolinas, some newly relocated located Acadians at
the end of their forced migrations from Canada, runaway slaves, Spanish
and French Creoles, Texians (emigrant Americans who settled in the
Spanish colony of Texas. Even privateers, like the romantic figure Jean
Lafitte, made occasional forays into the western lands far from the
tax-men and bean counters of New Orleans.
But what brings these visitors and
settlers to this corner of Louisiana are, at first, the broad expanses
of grassland frontier upon which cattle could be ranched and the rich
cypress and pine easily harvested for a wood-hungry world. These
diverse, independent and self-reliant pioneers develop a unique,
independent and distinctive spirit, not really the plantation South, nor
French/Spanish or Creole Louisiana, nor the Anglo-Scots/Irish lowland
or Upland southern cultures of the eastern seaboard. The Cantonment
Atkinson a minor US military outpost is erected on Charley's lake to
defend this southwestern corner of the young USA.
Our timeline: 1840 Louisiana has been a
state for a generation. Louisiana is a wealthy state with a huge
plantation economy of sugar and cotton. New Orleans is, perhaps, the
wealthiest city, per capita, in the United States. All the wealth of the
states along the Ohio, Mississippi and other rivers flows through the
docks of New Orleans. Galveston serves as the economic powerhouse of a
very young Texas still under Mexican control but itching to be
independent. Southwest Louisiana is sparsely populated with no real
towns, few farms or plantations, and still as isolated as it ever was
with only trails to connect it with the rest of the state.
For the families settled here, the
Ryans, the Perkins, the Cowards, the Pithons, the Lebleus, the Salliers,
and the others, life was as hard then as it had been since they located
to this corner of the state. To conduct business at the parish seat
meant a six to seven day overland trek to Opelousas, as this part of the
state was in the parish of St Landry. But in 1840 the old parish was
divided and the southwestern corner was established as Imperial
Calcasieu parish. Larger than the Delaware or Belgium in land area, the
parish was still the smallest in number of settlers. The parish town was
set at Marion, a crossroads and ferry crossing about 10 miles northeast
of the City of Lake Charles.
Back to our timeline: The 1850's
America is built with immigrants arriving in waves from northern Europe.
In Southwest Louisiana, the Goos family emigrates from Germany along
with others from the coastal areas along the North Sea. These German
immigrants take advantage of the cypress, pine and hardwoods found along
the rivers and strengthen the lumber industry and establish the
shipbuilding industry which continues for another 75 years.
Texas becomes a state and Calcasieu
pine and cypress is cut and processed for transshipment to Galveston
from Southwest Louisiana. A special relationship between this area and
that Texas city begins. Sheriff of the relatively new parish of Imperial
Calcasieu, Jacob Ryan, and the first lawyer in the area, Samuel Kirby,
decide that the Marion Courthouse is too remote. They petition the
legislature to relocate the courthouse on the eastern shore of Charley's
lake on land that they would provide. After some delay, they roll the
courthouse to the river, mount it on a barge and transport it some 12
miles downriver, roll it off the barge and onto land, roughly where the
parish courthouse is today (at Ryan and Kirby Streets, no less!)
The Sabine Pass Lighthouse is built in 1856 by the US government. It is perhaps the oldest brick structure still standing in Southwest Louisiana.
The 1860's: Pivotally for America, the
War Between the States is a catalyst for all sorts of changes. The
South is devastated. Louisiana is a focus for capture with Union General
Benjamin Butler capturing and occupying the City of New Orleans early
in the war. Louisiana is occupied by federal troops for 20 years under
Southwest Louisiana escapes major
battles, although the premier civil war battle in Texas is fought on and
around Sabine Pass, practically on Calcasieu soil. The village of
Charleston, founded and named for about a decade, decides to incorporate
and rename itself Lake Charles in 1867. Also in 1867, a trained
geologist claims that sulfur deposits he discovers in west Calcasieu
would prevent any serious coal or petroleum production. Later the
Calcasieu Sulphur Mining Company was developed to attempt to mine this
element important to the chemical industry.
The 1870's and 80's mark a period of
great growth for the area. The railroad finally crosses the great
prairie connecting the great southwest with the rest of the State and
Cameron Parish is carved from the
south part of Imperial Calcasieu. Growth in the area includes growth of
cattle ranches and citrus farming. Regular ferry service connects the
settlements of Johnsons Bayou, Grand Chenier, and Leesburg, now Cameron,
with Lake Charles. Transportation links make for better markets for
products of the ranch and farm. Land is now made available for
Midwesterners are drawn to the area
and develop towns like Vinton and Iowa. Steel plows, harvesters, and
steam engines drain marshes and plow fields. The rice industry
commences. An inspired entrepreneur, J B Watkins, determined and
declared that Southwest Louisiana is a veritable paradise, unspoiled by
the war, with large tracts of land unsettled. He raised and spent a
fortune in promoting the area with his North American Land and Timber
Company, which bought and sold huge tracts of land. His advertising
techniques presaged the marketing and targeted mailings of Madison
The 1890's: Improvements to utilities,
communications and transportation continue to connect Southwest
Louisiana with the state and nation. Lake Charles's water service, like
its electricity, is provided by Gulf States Utilities. Gulf States
divests itself of its water service and a private company provides water
service for 99 years.
In 1993, the City itself takes over
the Water Company. The railroads spread, moving passengers and freight,
encouraging commerce. Three railroad stations are developed in Lake
Charles. Sulphur, DeQuincy and DeRidder are well served by rail, helping
those areas to develop.
The Frasch Method for extracting sulfur from underground
was tested and perfected in the sulfur mines of west Calcasieu. The
successful process broke the Italian monopoly of the sulfur industry and
allowed, in some great degree, the establishment of the entire American
chemical industry. Commercial grade sulfur was brought up using
superheated water, allowed to dry in enormous vats 100 by 400 feet, then
blasted and shipped by rail to the Sabine River for shipment.
Still, the principal industry of the
area is the production of lumber. Trees were felled, branded to the
mill, and skidded to the water to float downstream slowly. Around Lake
Charles and up and down the Calcasieu River, over 28 mills processed the
pine and cypress into rough lumber, siding, beaded board and even into
millwork like doors, windows and trim. Several mills were developed and
owned by the so-called Michigan Men. These Michigan men built showcase
homes on Broad Street the principle east west street in the growing
1900: The turn of the century marked a
decade of technological advances. The petroleum industry begins in
Southwest Louisiana with the first commercial well drilled near
Jennings. The automobile makes its first appearance. The City of Lake
Charles has three streetcar lines to transport workers to jobs and
shoppers to market. Cultural offerings, social clubs, and fraternal
organization become institutions.
The great storm of 1900 destroys
Galveston. Calcasieu Pine and cypress help to rebuild that City
continuing the long relationship of the area to that Texas port. The
dynasty of the Reid family sheriffs begins.
1906 Teddy Roosevelt is president. The
Majestic Hotel opens its doors to augment the Haskell House, Lake House
and Howard House Hotels.
1910 The Great Fire of 1910
destroys about 30 blocks of Lake Charles including the Courthouse, the
City Hall and the Catholic Church. In a great rebuilding program the
parish, the city and the church chose the architectural firm of Favrot
and Livadais to design the replacements. Imperial Calcasieu Parish is
divided with much discussion and debate into four parishes. Lines were
drawn; parish seats selected and the last of Louisiana's 64 parishes are
School is opened to replace an earlier wooden building. Another Favrot
and Livaudais production, Central School is also known as Third Ward
School. Three other matching but smaller schools were also built at that
time. First and Second Ward Schools were long ago torn down, Fourth
Ward School (later known as Garber School) was torn down only a couple
of weeks ago. The Ward Schools were part of the City of Lake Charles
school system. Until the 1960's, there were two public school systems in
Calcasieu parish: City Schools (Central, the ward schools, Lake Charles
High) and the Parish Schools.
1914 The combination of a fascination
with new-fangled aircraft and the availability of year round flying and
flat land yields Gerstner Field, one of the pioneering efforts of Army
aviation. This training field just south west of Lake Charles trains
hundreds of men who later fought the Red Baron in World War I. Thus
begun a tradition of aviation in the area that continues with the
establishment of the Lake Charles Air Base, later Chennault which was a
Strategic Air Command base (which had the bomb), and with the Chennault
Industrial Airpark built on its foundation.
1918 The 1918 hurricane wrecked or
altered hundreds of homes in Southwest Louisiana and destroyed a large
portion of Gerstner Field. The roaring twenties was as roaring in Lake
Charles as in the rest of the US. The Port of Lake Charles
dredged the ship channel to allow for ocean going vessels (the salt
water that migrated north along the channel forever changed the ecology
of the shoreline and only the salt water barrier structure prevents the salt water to flow north to Moss Bluff.). [Click here for a slide show of the building of the port.]
At one time lush forests lined all the freshwater streams. The harvesting of lumber, already in a decline, will soon disappear.
The growing automobile culture causes
the loss of the streetcars. The three Lake Charles lines are abandoned.
Rosa Hart and a handful of community leaders started Lake Charles Little
Theatre, one of the oldest community theatres in America. They just
started their 81st season.
1930 The Depression Huey Long's
Louisiana surges toward the future, building a new skyscraper capitol to
replace the gothic castle Mark Twain wanted to dynamite. The Mathieson
Alkalie Works was founded continuing the chemical industry in Calcasieu
parish begun in west Calcasieu by Herman Frasch. Cities Services,
Conoco, Grace Davison, PPG, Louisiana Pigment and all the rest can trace
their industrial history.
The rice industry grows and the worlds
largest rice mill is constructed and operates at the foot of Kirkman
Street at the River. The Louisiana Maneuvers presage the war. Lake
Charles is a transportation point in the complex movements of troop
training. Eisenhower visits Lake Charles and develops a close
relationship with Emma Michie doyen of Lake Charles society and manager
of the Majestic Hotel.
Lake Charles Junior College opens on
the old parish poor farm in 1939. It is a part of LSU. Soon it is
renamed after the first parish school superintendent John McNeese and is
perhaps the only university in America named not for its founder, or
patron, but for an actual educator.
1940 The petroleum industry forges
full ahead. Maplewood, a planned community near Sulphur is built to
house the workers. The war in Europe and in the Pacific makes fuel a
priority product. The refineries are in full production and the City
expands south and east.
The talk of the town is the
sensational trials of Toni Jo Henry in Courtroom A of the historic
Calcasieu Courthouse. The lurid details of the murder and the tarnished
glamour of the defendant Toni Jo made for a tabloid drama that
distracted from the early war years. Her electrocution on the steps of
the Courthouse marked the end of the last woman to be executed for
murder in the parish where the murder was committed.
The Calcasieu River Bridge, also known as the I-10 or Pistol Bridge is
opened for traffic on Highway 90. Before that time traffic crossed at
the foot of Shell Beach Drive on a lift bridge. The remains of that bridge can still be seen. Before the bridge, you had to take a ferry to Westlake.
1950 The decade of Truman and
Eisenhower As the American consumer demanded more goods post war and the
economy of southwest Louisiana became more interconnected with the
mainstream, our future was more clearly connected with the ups and downs
of the overall American market.
1957 Hurricane Audrey roars through Southwest Louisiana leaving a wake of destruction. Cameron and Calcasieu rebuild.
1960/1970 Ryan Street was the
commercial and business hub of the area with continuous storefronts from
Mill Street to Clarence Street. There were department stores, specialty
shops, diners, theatres, drugstores, professional offices, hotels and
government offices in a concentrated area downtown from Front Street
(now Lakeshore Drive) to Hodges Street. In the early 30's Ryan had
supplanted Railroad Avenue (once known as Battle Row) as the principal
commercial street. In Sulphur, Huntington and Napoleon served the same
purposes. Each town had its urban core. As the 50's slid into the 60's
and 70's, the growth of the automobile culture began erosion of the
With cheap gas, cheap land, and
automobile status merchandising, markets were developed on a suburban
scale. This was a national movement. In the City of Lake Charles at
least, a very drastic vision was adopted and vigorously set into action.
Unfortunately the vision was that historic buildings were expendable
and that new was always better. We saw the wholesale demolition of many
landmark status buildings.
In New York, they tore down Penn Station to build the new Madison Square Garden.
In Lake Charles they tore down the
Calcasieu State Bank to build nothing. They tore down the Majestic Hotel
(which housed every president from Teddy Roosevelt to John F Kennedy)
to build nothing. They tore down the Paramount Theatre, a real movie
palace, to build nothing. They tore down the Elks Home, the Weber
Building, the Kress Building and Woolworth's to build nothing. They tore
down the Missouri Central Station; they tore down the Kansas City
Southern Station. The Arcade Theatre (where Houdini amazed the locals,
and where the St Louis Symphony played to sellout crowds) caught fire
and then they tore it down. The Southern Pacific Station was torched,
then they tore it down. And while they were tearing down most of our
visual history, they ripped up the wharves and warehouses on the lake
and filled in 64 acres of lake and built 40 acres of parking lots and a
marginally attractive Civic Center. And they blocked the major north
south road to construct a pedestrian mall and produced a maze of one way
streets to nowhere that virtually killed down town Lake Charles.
In the 80's and 90's, once the death
knell had sounded twice and was on the verge of the third and final
tolling, finally Ryan was reopened, phony facades were ripped off to
reveal the city of brick that was built following the Great Fire. As we
truly enter the first decade of the 21st century, Southwest Louisiana
and Lake Charles is reassessing what is important and necessary to live
well. Part of living well is knowing what came before, what roads led us
to where we are today. It's a lot like knowing who your ancestors were.
Their history is your history.
After the paired disasters of Katrina
and Rita, we're rebuilding and we are also redefining ourselves. It's an
exciting time to be living in Southwest Louisiana. I think that the
area has the resources and potential for excellence and for defining a
way of life that will be envied. There has been a great demand for
change and for positive growth. Projects that have great economic impact
and greater symbolic impact are in the planning stages, being built, or
are on the verge of being completed. I relish our history and I relish
our history of change. I challenge you to help bring the best of change
by making informed and careful choices and by entering the public
discussion and planning for the changes we know we can shape.